Formaggio – An Introduction to the Many Varieties of Italian Cheese

formaggio cheese

Even though Italy is a pretty small place, its regions are quite different from one another. And cheese (formaggio , in Italian) is one of the products that changes the most across the territories. Since the area of origin is a big part of what defines each cheese’s properties, many Italian cheeses have a protected denomination under European Union law (PDO – “Protected Designtrecciation of Origin”, or DOP – “Denominazione di Origine Protetta” in Italian). For a cheese to be labeled as PDO, every step of its production needs to happen in a specified geographic area: from local cows eating local hay, through production happening entirely in local facilities, to aging (or, for fresh cheeses, just packing) occurring rigorously in place.

Since Italian cheese names are so representative, in Italy they are never used as adjectives. For instance, you just say Mozzarella , not formaggio Mozzarella. And this even when the cheese name is indeed an adjective (for instance in the case of Parmesan which means ‘from the city of Parma’ – in Italian you just say Parmigiano , in English Parmesan cheese is instead more common). It has to be noted, however, that the name alone doesn’t guarantee the origin. For instance, “Mozzarella” isn’t a PDO cheese per se, while Mozzarella di Bufala Campana is (

Specialized cheese stores in North America can provide a good sampling of the most important cheeses found all around Italy. However, even the best stores are incapable of handling fresh cheeses (some need to be consumed within 3-4 days from their preparation), and locally made equivalents are sometimes sold instead (although, generally, they don’t compare with the originals).

Cheese is considered very highly in Italy. Italians are very proud of and take their cheeses very seriously. They use them in their cuisine, but mostly eat them on their own, just with some bread or accompanied by fruit (pears, grapes), by compotes (figs), or kinds of honey. All aged cheeses go very well with wine. Often, cheese is a course on its own (served at the end of the meal, before fruit or dessert). Eating Italian cheese is a true multi-sensorial experience, from the look, to the aroma, to the deeply multi-faced flavor. And, with the many varieties found from north to south, cheese is also a fascinating journey, both geographically and historically.

Let’s go over the main Italian cheeses, classifying them by the process used to make them.

Formaggi a Pasta Cruda (Uncooked Cheeses)

Fast ripening (less than 30 days):

  • Caciotta (e.g. Caciotta Toscana DOP) –usually a blend of ewe (70%) and cow (30%)– traditional creamy farmhouse cheese.
  • Mascarpone cow– one of the main ingredients of Tiramisù , also used in other preparations as an alternative to heavy cream or butter.
  • Stracchinocow– gets its name from the word ‘tired’ (in Lombard dialect: stracco), referring to the fact that used to be made from the milk of cows who were tired because of the transhumance to the valley after the alpine summer.
  • Caprinogoat– an aged version also exists.

Medium ripening (1-6 months):

  • Bel Paese (trademark) –cow-.
  • Taleggio (PDO, Taleggio Valley, Lombardy) –cow– [pronounced “ta’leddʒo”, not “ta’lejeeo”!] when very young, tastes similar to Bel Paese.
  • Gorgonzola (PDO, Lombardy) –normally, cow– soft and creamy if is less than 2 months aged, crumbly and spicy-hot when aged for longer.

Formaggi a Pasta Semicotta (Semi-cooked Cheeses)

Medium ripening (1-6 months):

  • Fontina (PDO, Aosta Valley) –cow– soft when younger, harder and more pungent when aged. Differs from Danish fontina which has a red wax rind.
  • Asiago (PDO, Veneto region) –cow– great on its own as a table cheese, can be used on pasta (grated or in slivers).
  • Montasio (PDO, Friuli and Veneto regions) –cow– also consumed on its own or added as an ingredient to several dishes.
  • Piave (trademark, Veneto region) –cow– mostly a table cheese, three varieties are produced: mezzano (medium aged), vecchio (old), and stravecchio (extra-old).

Formaggi a Pasta Cotta (Cooked Cheeses)

Slow ripening (more than 9 months):

  • Grana Padano (PDO, northen Italy) –cow– considered inferior to Parmigiano Reggiano because aged less (9 months minimum) and produced with less strict quality regulations.
  • Parmigiano Reggiano (PDO, Provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, Mantua) –cow-, one of the most representative Italian cheeses in the world – its origins can be traced back to the middle ages and the recipe hasn’t changed substantially (this cheese is aged at least 12 months and up to 30). It’s eaten on its own or used as a complement to hundreds of recipes, most pasta dishes, and risottos.
  • Aged Pecorino – (4 varieties of PDO: Sardo, Romano, Toscano, Siciliano from the corresponding regions) –sheep– a mildly aged variety also exists.

Formaggi a Pasta Filata (Spun Paste Cheeses)

Fast ripening:

  • Mozzarellacow, water buffalo– can be made of cow milk, but the one made of water buffalo milk is more renowned and “Mozzarella di Bufala Campana” is PDO. Small sized mozzarellas, usually with high water content are called bocconcini. Similar products are fior di latte and Treccia.
  • Scamorza (from the Naples area) –cow– both smoked and mild varieties are used for instance on pizza and with pasta.
  • Burrata (also from southern Italy) –cow or water buffalo- mozzarella on the outside and cream plus mozzarella on the inside. Eaten as is at room temperature is a true delicacy.

Medium ripening (1 month):

  • Caciocavallo (southern Italy, e.g. PDO Caciocavallo Silano) –sheep, cow– a smoked variety also exists.
  • Provolone (e.g. PDO “Provolone Val Padana”) –cow– [pronounced provolone-eh!] originated in the south but is now produced mostly in northern Italy.

One characteristic of Italian cheeses that definitely stands out in North America is that they often have some kind of moldy rinds. In general, the rinds are not meant to be eaten (with a few exceptions, e.g. scamorza and provola which have edible rinds), but they are essential for the aging process. Italian stores, whenever possible, try to keep the cheese wheels whole and only slice them to order (this is especially true for fresh or medium ripened cheese; aged cheese gets more “stable” and better maintains its properties when stored).

Even though Italy is a big producer of cheese, a few foreign brands managed to make their way into the Italian cheese market, with moderate success. For instance, in 1971 the American Kraft introduced Philadelphia, a pre-packed cream cheese, and in 1975 a type of cottage cheese (sold under the brand name “Jocca”). Kraft also introduced a kind of processed cheese slices called “Sottilette” (Italian for “thins”). It has to be noted that the words “cottage cheese” and “cream cheese” don’t even exist in Italian, let alone “processed cheese” – these products are exclusively known by their brand names (to Kraft’s advantage).

8 thoughts on “Formaggio – An Introduction to the Many Varieties of Italian Cheese”

  1. Good article. It would be nice to add more details about the various cheeses' favours. I think it would give people a better idea of what to expect and may trigger some curiosity of going out and seek for a specific cheese that should meet their taste.

  2. To understand how hard is to find some kinds of cheese it has to be noted that many are not even available outside their region in Italy.

    For example it would be very hard and expensive to find a good mozzarella in Milan, and for sure you will never find the best product. Even in Naples not all the markets will have a very excellent mozzarella (relatively speaking, of course it's always a totally different cheese than the one we can find in the states), the best ones are directly bought from the manufacturers in their city of origin (Mondragone and Battipaglia are the best known towns for it)

    The hard cheeses are more readily available of course, even if only the mainstream brands cover the entire country, the artigianal cheeses are pretty much a local thing.

  3. I think—at least that's what common in Naples, and we know how us Italians like to confuse things by calling similar food items with different regional-based names—you are mistaking scamorza for provola here.

    Scamorza is a kind of caciocavallo, with a smoked rind.

    Provola is the fresh, milky cheese similar to mozzarella, but smoked.
    In Naples you can also find buffalo milk provola, which, I dare say, is even more delicious than mozzarella (or just as).
    Well, de gustibus…

    1. Thanks Amalia for your specification! I don't think I've ever had real provola then. You're right, with the different regional names it does get confusing.

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